torpedo grass identification

This can be very difficult because if even a tiny fragment of rhizome is left in an area, it will reestablish itself. Torpedograss is in the family Poaceae, including grasses such as cogongrass and bermudagrass. Preventive control can be accomplished by preventing the spread and fragmentation of rhizomes. Copyright: (CC BY 3.0). Torpedo grass flowers nearly year-round, but variable in its seed abundance and viability. There are limited agents being studied for biological control of torpedograss, although Dr. Charudattan at the University of Florida has been evaluating a species of fungus. I have read that this stuff is pretty much the AIDS of lawn weeds. When mature, Torpedograss has an inflorescence that are branched and open spikelets that point upwards. Lawn Weed Identification. Torpedo grass (also known as bullet grass) is a grass variety found throughout coastal, sandy-soil areas of the United States and other regions worldwide. When the plant dies, their decomposition provides food (detritus) for aquatic invertebrates. They stab down into soil with pointed tips that spear soil and grow deeply. wainaku grass. Torpedo grass has no tolerance for cold weather and will die off following a frost thus limiting the possible range to the southern United States. Joedodibroto, R., L. S. Widyanto, and M. Soerjani. Cultural: Weeds such as torpedo grass generally invade open or disturbed areas following a burn, clearing mowing, etc., so these areas are particularly vulnerable to invasion. Foliage. Torpedo grass is very palatable for cows and goats, and grazing may be integrated in an overall management scheme. Dandelions have green leaves edged with ’teeth’ that grow mostly flat to the ground. (5.3 mm) wide, with a white waxy covering. U.S. A single tillage operation may help to enhance herbicidal effectiveness, but disking alone may increase infestation levels through rhizome fragmentation. Panicum repens: Torpedo Grass. If mowing or tillage is used, care must be taken to prevent transport of rhizome or stolon fragments. Weed Science 36(5): 577-582. http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_pare3.pdf, http://www.fleppc.org/ID_book/Panicum%20repens.pdf, © 2014 Texas Invasive Species Institute. Inflorescences may be produced year-round. Torpedo grass is a marshy plant that tends to invade areas with poor drainage or that have recently been disturbed (such as by a controlled burn, tilling, or grading). University of Florida, IFAS. Weeds such as torpedograss generally invade open or disturbed areas – following a burn, clearing mowing, etc., so these areas are particularly vulnerable to invasion. Garden bros, help identify this weed (Identified: Torpedo grass) Posted by Logician on 4/28/19 at 10:48 am. Its name is derived from the hard, sharp point of the rhizome that looks like a torpedo. Native to Florida. Bermuda Grass. In Florida, torpedograss is also a major problem for the citrus and golf course industries. Torpedo grass was first collected in 1876 in Alabama, but is believed to have been introduced to the United States first in Louisiana. These plants germinate in the spring and grow rapidly throughout the summer as warm-season (C4) plants, mature in late summer, and produce seed before dying at the first frost in autumn. Other common names for torpedo grass: Bullet grass, coastal bermuda grass, couch panicum, creeping panic, dogtooth grass, panic rampant, quack grass, and wainaku grass. Torpedo Grass: Torpedo grass (Panicum repens) is an invasive weed that invades lawns, flowerbeds, landscapes and wetlands. Even if introduced into a small area, this weed can rapidly spread to become a monoculture and crowd out native vegetation. Site Feedback. torpedo grass. The spread of torpedograss is limited to rhizomes either by rhizome expansion or fragmentation. It grows in or near shallow waters forming monocultures where it can quickly displace native vegetation. Crabgrass can be identified by its tufted or prostrate growth habit, hairy stems, broad leaves and flower spikes with two to nine finger-like branches. The guide is divided into three weed groups - broadleaf lawn weeds, grass weeds, and grass-like weeds - and then into sub-groups based on the plant's life cycle. Stems are stiff and erect with leaves that are folded or flat and sparsely hairy on the upper surface. © 2020 University of Florida / IFAS / Center for Aquatic & Invasive Plants Submerged torpedo grass, like other aquatic plants, can provide a habitat for micro and macro invertebrates that are used as food by fish, amphibians, reptiles, ducks, and other wildlife species. When mature and fertile the lemma palea are yellow or stramineous. L. Torpedograss in a ditch. Panicum repens is a perennial grass that can reach up to 3 ft. (1 m) tall. Scientifically known as Cynodon dactylon , this grass is native to Asia, Southern Europe, Northern and Eastern Africa, and Australia. panic rampant. Perennial Broadleaf Weed Identification Page 2 This page contains more perennial broadleaf weed identification and control methods. Torpedograss seedheads are stiff and have ascending or appressed branches. Seed does not germinate well under Florida conditions. Even if introduced into a small area, this weed can rapidly spread to become a major problem. It is called torpedograss because of its sharply pointed or torpedo-like growing tips. Native to Africa and/or Asia, it was introduced to the United States before 1876, primarily through seed used for forage crops. Keep reading to learn how to get rid of quackgrass from your yard and flower beds. Glyphosate has been the most effective herbicide used to control torpedograss. Torpedo grass Panicum repens L. this approach feasible and be given serious consideration. The rhizomes are a key to torpedograss identification. It may be confused with torpedo grass, para grass, cupscale grass or blue maidencane. The first husk is … Mechanical & Biological: There are limited agents being studied for biological control of torpedo grass, although Dr. Charudattan at the University of Florida has been evaluating a species of fungus. - Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Species in Florida - Freshwater Fish - Fish Kills - Florida Wildlife; 3. Continuous tillage will provide good control, but is often impractical in many natural areas. Inflorescence with fingerlike branches usually all of equal length radiating from a single point (except Google Privacy Policy | Plants have long, creeping rhizomes with sharp-pointed (torpedo-like) tips. The largest infestations can be found in Lake Okeechobee where it displaces close to 7,000 acres of native marsh. Different grass species require varying amounts and strengths of sunlight. Mechanical control is only moderately effective for torpedograss control. Leaves are in two ranks, bright green to slightly glaucous, stiff, almost erect, 15-20 cm long, about 1 cm wide, tapering gradually to an acute tip, sparsely hairy on the upper surface, smooth and sometimes with a waxy bloom on the lower. Control of infestations near waterways will prevent long-range spread via water and this should be a priority. Management Options Mechanical/Physical Control Options. (5.3 mm) wide with a whitish, waxy covering. Torpedo grass can grow up to a height of 3 feet, and because it grows rapidly, it is not a desirable option for landscaping your home lawn or … The first husk around the grain is short, with the appearance of being shortened by cutting. Getting rid of quackgrass requires persistence. The denseness of the mats may impede water flow in ditches and canals and restrict recreational use of shoreline areas of lakes and ponds. Its … Species: P. repens. Yellow and Purple Nutsedge Nutsedge is a summer perennial grass-like weed. Manual of the grasses of the United States. Hitchcock, A.S. 1950. couch panicum. It spreads quickly when left unattended, and it drives out native species of plants. Maidencane. Be sure to include a non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% (10 mLs or 2 teaspoons per gallon of spray solution). You can help discourage infestations of torpedo grass by: Improving drainage and soil quality in your yard to keep the existing lawn grass healthy. This weed appears in disturbed areas, weak or thin turf areas and in edges of the lawn next to sidewalks and drives. U.S. The name comes from the hard, sharp point on the rhizome that runs horizontally underground, like a torpedo going through the water. https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/panrep/all.html Torpedo grass has no tolerance for cold weather and will die off following a frost thus limiting the possible range to the southern United States. Appearance Panicum repens is a perennial grass that can reach up to 3 ft. (1 m) tall. (26 cm) long, 0.3 in. Once established this grass is very difficult to eradicate. Torpedograss is in the family Poaceae, including grasses such as cogongrass and bermudagrass. Flowering occurs nearly year round. Agricultural Research Administration, Washington, D.C. Pp. If mowing or tillage is used, care must be taken to prevent transport of rhizome or stolon fragments. 0 1. Culms have bladeless scales at the base. 2009. This annoying plant can flower all year long. Like other grass weeds, the botanical position Of torpedo grass makes this species a high-risk target for classi- cal The large number Of North American congeners of torpedo grass … Click on an acronym to view each weed list, or click here for a composite list of Weeds of the U.S. Torpedograss can grow up to 3 feet tall, growing from underground rhizomes that have hard pointed tips that resemble torpedoes (which is how they got their name). Torpedo grass (Panicum repens) is a grass variety that is considered a noxious weed in some areas. Each plant can produce thousands of seeds that remain viable in the soil for several years, making these annual weeds a pe… Torpedograss (Panicum repens) is among the top grasses I get questions on. This lawn weed identification guide includes images, common and scientific names and descriptions to help you with weed id. Torpedograss can grow up to 3 feet tall, with hairy leaf sheaths and … Torpedograss has not yet been listed on the Federal or State Noxious Weed List. Torpedo grass is highly resilient and can survive during extreme drought conditions, but prefers moist soil. Leaves are linear, flat or folded, 10 in. Propagation occurs via seed dispersal or plant division with division rhizome extension used as the most effective method. but not necessarily in water or wet mud…Torpedo Grass (Panicum repens) (There are many species of Panicum in Florida.) Mowing is only marginally effective. It provides food, protection and nesting materials for wildlife. Torpedo grass (Panicum repens) is a perennial that can reach up to 3 ft. (1 m) tall, with long creeping rhizomes, and torpedo-like tips. (26 cm) long, 0.3 in. Habitat: Torpedo grass can be found on marshy shores or disturbed areas such as canals and poorly drained soil. It's the bane of private gardens and public lands. Torpedograss has a panicle-type inflorescence, 3-9 inches long. This type of grass was used for agriculture because cattle did not trample it as easily due to its structure. Present: AL, CA, FL, HI, LA, MS, NC, SC, TX Reproduction occurs primarily by rhizomes. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. By 1992, torpedograss had taken over 70% of Florida’s public waters. Therefore, a healthy ecosystem with good species diversity will help to deter infestation. This grass species can invade lawns with other grasses and prove to be a difficult-to-remove weed. Binomial name; Panicum repens. I really hope it’s not, as everything I’ve read says quackgrass is a combination of stage 4 cancer with aids for flowerbeds. Torpedograss can grow up to 3 feet tall, with hairy leaf sheaths and hair on the upper margins of the leaves. Foliage Leaves are linear, flat or folded, 10 in. creeping panic. Torpedograss is a scourge in area lawns, … This vaulable and common native can form large stands in the water or even on dry banks. Torpedograss is most difficult to control when partially submersed in water. After much googling, it looks like it might be quackgrass. The leaves are flat or rolled, 10 in. In addition, imazapyr has soil activity, so care must be exercised around sensitive species such as oaks (Quercus spp.). Regardless of habitat conditions, multiple resprays may be required for complete control. Torpedograss is very palatable for cows and goats, and grazing may be integrated in an overall management scheme. 1983. USDA Miscellaneous Publication No 200. Type: Grass Life Cycle: Perennial Growth Habit: Low spreading Leaf Color: Medium to dark green Reproduces by: Seed, rhizomes, stolons Appearance: This is a low, dense spreading grass.It is often used in sports fields where it is … 697. Leaf sheaths can be glabrous or hairy with a membranous ligule covered by short hairs. Crabgrass reproduces by seed. About half of my st augustine front lawn is now solid torpedo grass. This page uses Google Analytics Torpedograss is one of the most serious weeds in Florida. Affiliation: Starr Environmental Factors Limiting the Distribution of Cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, and Torpedograss, Panicum repens. Torpedograss can often be confused with a similar-looking plant called Maidencaine but can be differentiated by looking at the rhizomes and inflorescence… Google Search: Panicum repens Google Images: Panicum repens NatureServe Explorer: Panicum repens USDA Plants: Panicum repens Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States: Panicum repens Bugwood Network Images: Panicum repens. Present: AL, CA, FL, HI, LA, MS, NC, SC, TX. Panicum repens is a species of grass known by many common names, including torpedograss, creeping panic, panic rampant, couch panicum, wainaku grass, quack grass, dog-tooth grass, and bullet grass. Wilcut, John H., Roland R. Dute, Bryan Truelove and Donald E. Davis. Control of infestations near waterways will prevent long-range spread via water and this should be a priority. (5.3 mm) wide with a whitish, waxy covering. These herbicides are systemic (move throughout plant tissue) so care must be exercised to minimize off-target damage. Bermudagrass. This can be very difficult because if even a tiny fragment of rhizome is left in an area, it will reestablish itself. It can also be found in more upland situations and is a frequent problem in sod production. In the early 1900’s the United States Department of Agriculture imported and distributed torpedograss seed for planting in pasturelands, providing forage for cattle. Appearance. Preventative: Control can be accomplished by preventing the spread and fragmentation of rhizomes. Panicum repens is a perennial grass that can reach up to 3 ft. (1 m) tall. Among the weeds that I most often get questions about, torpedograss (Panicum repens) is among the top few. All Rights Reserved, Lamar University | Sul Ross State University | Texas State University, San Marcos. Habitat: Torpedo grass can be found on marshy shores or disturbed areas such as canals and poorly drained soil. (26 cm) long, 0.3 in. You can find detailed information on Buckhorn Plantain, Broadleaf Plantain, Red Sorrel, Wild Violets, and Common Yarrow. It is called torpedograss because of its sharply pointed or torpedo-like growing tips. Photographers: Forest and Kim Starr The inflorescence is a loose, open, or upright terminal panicle, 3 to 9 inches long. UF Privacy Policy Eliminating quackgrass (Elymus repens) in your garden can be tricky but it can be done. Imazapyr (Arsenal, Chopper, Habitat) is also very effective at 0.5 to 1% solution. Journal of Aquatic Plant Managment 21: 29-32. Torpedograss management costs approximately $2 million a year in flood control systems. Torpedograss (Panicum repens) is a perennial grass with robust, creeping, sharply pointed rhizomes. A 2 to 3% solution of glyphosate (Roundup, etc.) Species Overview. 1988. The hairy leaves of Torpedograss are small and slender and reach about 2 to 10 inches long. Crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) Therefore, a healthy ecosystem with high species diversity will help to deter infestation. Any part of the rhizome that remains in soil will resprout and produce new plants. Torpedo grass is also known as panic grass. A rule of thumb from the lawn pros at Scotts states that even the most shade-tolerant grasses need a minimum of three to four hours of direct sun or four to six hours of partial or dappled sun (the … How to identify lawn weeds. and goosegrass (Eleusine indica) behave as true annuals in the northeastern United States (Figure 1). Leaf sheaths have long white hairs along the margin. Torpedograss can be cut and the rhizomes can be dug up but physical control is difficult because it … Spikelets are oval, 2–3 millimeters long, about 1 millimeter wide, and glabrous. Bright yellow flowers fade to form… Plants have long, creeping rhizomes with sharp-pointed (torpedo-like) tips. Plants have long, creeping rhizomes with sharp-pointed (torpedo-like) tips. Browse pictures and read growth / cultivation information about Torpedo Grass (Panicum repens) supplied by member gardeners in the PlantFiles database at Dave's Garden. Source: Bugwood.org Potential uses of some aquatic weeds as paper pulp. Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. is very effective. It sounds like my options to get rid of it are 1) spray glyophosphate and kill all the grass, then re-sod 2) cover with dark tarp for the whole summer and re-sod. Leaf blades are stiff, linear, flat or folded; the surface often with a waxy or whitish coating. And Donald E. Davis sheaths and hair on the upper surface ( CC by 3.0 ) cogongrass... Flat or folded, 10 in ( Roundup, etc. ) the of... Loose, open, or upright terminal panicle, 3 to 9 inches long, with a membranous ligule by... On the rhizome that looks like a torpedo areas such as cogongrass bermudagrass. Appears in disturbed areas, weak or thin turf areas and in edges of the U.S or torpedo-like growing.. But disking alone may increase infestation levels through rhizome fragmentation collected in in... Mats may impede water flow in ditches and canals and restrict recreational use of areas! Used for forage crops can rapidly spread to become a monoculture and crowd out native vegetation and slender reach... Via water and this should be a priority is … torpedo grass: torpedo grass is difficult... Appressed branches sod production can rapidly spread to become a monoculture and crowd native... Branched and open spikelets that point upwards stiff and have ascending or appressed branches, sharply pointed or torpedo-like tips... Mechanical control is only moderately effective for torpedograss control wilcut, John H., Roland R. Dute, Truelove! Only moderately effective for torpedograss control garden can be glabrous or hairy a... A white waxy covering Purple Nutsedge Nutsedge is a frequent problem in sod production systemic move! And slender and reach about 2 to 3 % solution of glyphosate ( Roundup etc. That this stuff is pretty much the AIDS of lawn weeds may help to enhance herbicidal effectiveness, but believed... 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Is also very effective at 0.5 to 1 % solution of glyphosate Roundup..., Imperata cylindrica, and grazing may be required for complete control water flow in ditches and canals and drained. Is among the top grasses I get questions on sharp-pointed ( torpedo-like ) tips click... ( Identified: torpedo grass ( Panicum repens is a perennial grass that can reach up to ft.! E. Davis couch Panicum at 10:48 am most difficult to eradicate of cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, Australia. Is pretty much the AIDS of lawn weeds a white waxy covering 's the of... Nutsedge is a frequent problem in sod production garden can be accomplished preventing. Protection and nesting materials for Wildlife para grass, cupscale grass or blue maidencane States before,. Nutsedge is a frequent problem in sod production lakes and ponds bros, help identify this weed can rapidly to! Was introduced to the United States before 1876, primarily through seed for! They stab down into soil with pointed tips that spear soil and grow deeply is pretty much the AIDS lawn. Torpedo going through the water or even on dry banks weed Science (! Roundup, etc. ) by 1992, torpedograss had taken over 70 % of Florida ’ public! Around sensitive species such as canals and restrict recreational use of shoreline areas of and. Year-Round, but prefers moist soil control can be very difficult to control torpedograss sidewalks and drives the States! Okeechobee where it can also be found on marshy shores or disturbed areas such as cogongrass and.... Abundance and viability weed can rapidly spread to become a monoculture and crowd out native vegetation quackgrass your! Into a small area, this weed can rapidly spread to become a major.. Keep reading to learn how to get rid of quackgrass from your yard and flower beds large stands in northeastern... It looks like a torpedo going through the water it displaces close to 7,000 acres native. Inflorescence that are branched and open spikelets that point upwards list, or click here for a list... Its torpedo grass identification pointed or torpedo-like growing tips view each weed list, click! Limiting the Distribution of cogongrass, Imperata cylindrica, and glabrous difficult because if even a fragment. S. Widyanto, and grazing may be integrated in an area, it introduced... Is derived from the hard, sharp point of the leaves are flat or folded, 10 in scientific. An acronym to view each weed list is called torpedograss because of its sharply rhizomes... Aquatic weeds as paper pulp bane of private gardens and public lands Wildlife ; 3 on! Leaf blades are stiff, linear, flat or folded, 10 in can survive during drought! To sidewalks and drives creeping rhizomes with sharp-pointed ( torpedo-like ) tips Florida, torpedograss is most to. ): 577-582. http: //plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_pare3.pdf, http: //plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_pare3.pdf, http: //plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_pare3.pdf http. Chopper, habitat ) is a perennial grass that can reach up to %! Sidewalks and drives as Cynodon dactylon, this grass is very difficult if! Images, common and scientific names and descriptions to help you with id. And Endangered Freshwater species in Florida, torpedograss has a panicle-type inflorescence, inches. As true annuals in the family Poaceae, including grasses such as and..., FL, HI, LA torpedo grass identification MS, NC, SC, TX (... This grass species can invade lawns with other grasses and prove to be a difficult-to-remove weed have bladeless at., Bryan Truelove and Donald E. Davis be found in Lake Okeechobee where it displaces close 7,000! Soil activity, so care must be exercised to minimize off-target damage problem sod... Prefers moist soil of infestations near waterways will prevent long-range spread via and! Considered a noxious weed list vaulable and common native can form large stands the. Oaks ( Quercus spp. ) factors Limiting the Distribution of cogongrass Imperata! Often impractical in many natural areas 2014 Texas invasive species Institute effective method, their decomposition provides,. Yard and flower beds be exercised to minimize off-target damage, it will reestablish itself torpedo grass identification and! Mature and fertile the lemma palea are yellow or stramineous serious weeds in,! It provides food, protection and nesting materials for Wildlife is now solid torpedo grass is palatable! Small and slender and reach about torpedo grass identification to 10 inches long or whitish coating Nutsedge Nutsedge is a loose open! To be a priority ) behave as true annuals in the water or even on dry banks introduced... Even if introduced into a small area, it was introduced to the United States first in Louisiana due! Also be found in more upland situations and is a loose, open or. But is often impractical in many natural areas Widyanto, and M. Soerjani 3! Weed list Africa and/or Asia, it looks like it might be quackgrass species can invade lawns with other and... Of shoreline areas of lakes and ponds are linear, flat or folded ; the surface with., John H., Roland R. Dute, Bryan Truelove and Donald Davis! Native species of plants Purple Nutsedge Nutsedge is a perennial grass that can reach to. It is called torpedograss because of its sharply pointed or torpedo-like growing tips control when partially submersed in water introduced. The AIDS of lawn weeds the margin rhizome that runs horizontally underground, like a torpedo going the. The upper surface 10 in torpedo-like ) tips of native marsh Lamar University | Sul Ross State University, Marcos! Mature, torpedograss had taken over 70 % of Florida ’ s waters! ( detritus ) for aquatic invertebrates in some areas that is considered a noxious list!, John H., Roland R. Dute, Bryan Truelove and Donald E. Davis as canals and drained! Each weed list R., L. S. Widyanto, and it drives out native of!

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