king philip iv of spain

Philip IV (1605-1665) was king of Spain from 1621 to 1665. Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. ." Even though Philip was an intelligent ruler, he relied too much on his ministers. The expensive and futile War of the Mantuan Succession (1628–1631) infuriated Spain's allies and triggered a failed campaign against France. Spain - Spain - Philip IV’s reign: In 1620, following the defeat of Frederick V (the elector palatine, or prince, from the Rhineland who had accepted the crown of Bohemia when it was offered to him in 1618) and the Bohemians, Spanish troops from the Netherlands entered the “Winter King’s” hereditary dominions of the Rhenish Palatinate. Philip IV, (born April 8, 1605, Valladolid, Spain—died Sept. 17, 1665, Madrid), king of Spain (1621–65) and of Portugal (1621–40), during the decline of Spain as a great world power. Philip's principal minister, Gaspar de Guzmán, Count of Olivares, dominated his councils and was the effective ruler of Spain for more than 20 years. Philip IV, 1605–65, king of Spain, Naples, and Sicily (1621–65) and, as Philip III, king of Portugal (1621–40); son and successor of Philip III of Spain. as Philip IV king of Spain from 1621; as Philip III king of Portugal 1621–1640 . Thus the war between the two countries continued after the Peace of Westphalia (by which Spain officially recognized the independence of the United Provinces) had concluded the Thirty Years War in 1648. Philip, however, underwent a crisis of faith during the 1640 emergency. In the course of his reign he had married twice. During his reign Spain was engaged in foreign wars and torn by internal revolt. Philip IV came to power as war between Spain and the rebellious Dutch recommenced after the expiration of a truce. King Philip IV. The two had an amicable start, but with time, repeated failed policies and campaigns, along with the jealousy of fellow noblemen in his court, resulted in Olivares's removal. Philip made a blunder by relying too much on his favorite minister and perceived France as a weak opponent during the 1648 Fronde rebellion. Philip did not pass on any power to his illegitimate son, Juan José, born to his mistress María Inés Calderón, triggering a lifelong animosity between Mariana and Juan. He has been held responsible for the decline of Spain, which was mainly due to organic causes largely beyond the control of any one ruler. Since 1640, Philip's army had encountered separatist rebellions by both Catalonia (which eventually established an alliance with France to capture Castile) and Portugal (which was later freed from Spain). Accession Number 04.1606. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Cambridge, U.K., 1988. Nevertheless, Spain's foreign policies flourished in the 1620s. Much of his reign was spent at war, and it was as a military leader that Velázquez most often portrayed him. Although his early paintings were religious-themed, he became renowned for his realistic, complex portraits as a member of King Philip IV's court. Philip's inability to bring in domestic and military reforms to Spain caused its decline. France used the clause after Philip's death, to seize more from the Spanish territories during the War of Devolution. During his reign the Spanish Empire was severely challenged and its economic, social, and…, Philip V (Spain) (1683–1746; Ruled 1700–1724, 1724–1746) Encyclopedia.com. Even though the treaty resolved the Eighty Years' War, the war with France continued to affect Spain negatively. Workshop of: Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (Spanish, 1599–1660) 1624 Medium/Technique Oil on canvas. Lynch, John. Philip was just 10 when he was married off to Elisabeth of France, who was 3 years older than him. That year Philip met and came under the influence of Sor María de Jesús de Agreda (1602–1665), a mystic with whom he corresponded for the rest of his life, receiving spiritual and political advice. Philip also acquired a new favorite, Olivares's nephew Luis de Haro (1598–1661), who presided over Spain's gradual disengagement from the European and peninsular conflicts. The population decline in Europe led to. King Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II) of Spain, also known as Philip the Prudent or Philip II of the House of Habsburg, was unarguably the most important ruler in Spanish history. "Philip IV His colours are pure and sparkling, while his portraits are marked by a truthfulness to life and by an insight into character which make them types for all time. . In his will, Philip had appointed Mariana as his son Charles's political regent and stated that she should seek the advice of the “juntas.”. They had seven children. By the 1630s, Philip's domestic policies were under a massive financial strain resulting from the Thirty Years' War and the war with France. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. As part of the "peace package, " a marriage was arranged between Philip IV's daughter, Maria Theresa, and the young Louis XIV. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/philip-iv-0. social tensions. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/philip-iv-spain-1605-1665, MACKAY, RUTH "Philip IV (Spain) (1605–1665) About this Object Philip IV (1605-1665) ruled Spain and its dominions for over forty years during the 17th century. Elizabeth of France, Married 1559 - 1568. Philip loved collecting paintings from across Europe, which he displayed to showcase his power and status. He never relented from his fight against heresy, defending the Catholic faith and limiting freedom of worship within his territories. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. In 1618 Spain had been drawn into what became the Thirty Years' War, and in 1628 it became ensnared in the so-called War of the Mantuan Succession, which turned out to be expensive and useless as it angered Spain's natural allies and gave a victory to France. Spanish and Portuguese History: Biographies, Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. Studies have shown that the seventeenth-century Spanish monarchs did not deserve the pejorative term, though the reevaluation is due less to their abilities than to the events of their reigns, which have been the subject of important works of revisionist history. His Royal Highness Prince Philip, duke of Edinburgh (born 1921) has spent over fifty years by the side of his wife, Queen Elizabeth II of Grea…, Philip the Good (1396-1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 to 1467. Encyclopedia.com. Philip's reign witnessed the golden age of Spanish art and literature because he was a great patron of literature, theater, and the fine arts. Born on April 8, 1605, Philip IV succeeded his father, Philip III, in 1621. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Balthasar Charles, who was Elisabeth and Philip's only son, died young in 1646. Although civil war in France (the Fronde) gave the Spanish some slight respite, it could not stave off the inevitable. The second half of Philip's reign was marred by the bankruptcy declared in 1647, a demographic slump, epidemics, agricultural failures, inactive industries, and high taxation in Castile. Under his rule the Spanish court is supposed to have been a hotbed of pleasure-seeking, rampant favouritism and pervasive corruption. Even though peace with France was attained, Portugal’s revolt continued while Philip unsuccessfully made attempts to recapture his lost kingdom. He believed that his successes and failures were God's ways of responding to his deeds. Spain and Its World, 1500–1700. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Olivares fell from power in 1643, and his system of government was dismantled. Philip instigated many important reforms in Spain, most especially the centralization of power of the monarchy and the suppression of regional privileges, via the Nueva Planta decrees, and restructuring of the … In 1640 he endured rebellions by both Catalonia and Portugal. He even encouraged Philip to keep mistresses. Philip's foreign policies were determined by a combination of Catholic fervour and dynastic objectives. MACKAY, RUTH "Philip IV (Spain) (1605–1665) For our latest mission we staged an unauthorized autograph signing in the Metropolitan Museum of Art with an actor who bears a striking resemblance to King Philip IV of Spain. The former ended unsuccessfully for the Catalans in 1652; the latter ended in 1668, after the king's death, with the independence of Portugal. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Soon afterward, Portugal rebelled and declared itself independent from Spain. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. During his reign Spain was engaged in foreign wars and torn by internal revolt. Even though Philip was an intelligent ruler, he relied too much on … Brown, Jonathan, and J. H. Elliott. Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. King Philip IV of Spain 1607 Oil on canvas, 118 x 124 cm Schloss Ambras, Innsbruck: The full-length portraits represent King Philip IV of Spain (1605-1665) in … Looted by the French during Joseph Bonaparte's occupation of Madrid in 1813. (October 16, 2020). Of equal concern was the absence of an heir. Spanish tr…, Philip . PHILIP IV (SPAIN) (1605–1665), king of Spain (1621–1665). The greatest of these favorites was Gaspar de Guzmán, the count-duke of Olivares (1587–1645), whose rival and counterpart across the Pyrenees was Cardinal Richelieu (1585–1642) of the court of Louis XIII (ruled 1610–1643). https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Philip_IV_of_Spain.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Philip_IV_of_Spain_-_Vel%C3%A1zquez_1644.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Retrato_de_Felipe_IV,_by_Diego_Vel%C3%A1zquez.jpg. Philip IV came to power as war between Spain and the rebellious Dutch recommenced after the expiration of a truce. One of his favorite ministers, Olivares, not only influenced Philip's political decision but controlled his personal life, too. . There were a few early military triumphs, among them the 1624 surrender of Breda by the Dutch and the king's brother's victory over the Swedes … But at home he proved to be an important patron of the arts. On May 19, 1643, the Spanish infantry was vanquished by the French at Rocroi. The waiver of the Infanta's inheritance rights to Spanish territory was contingent on the payment of a dowry of 500, 000 escudos, which the French as well as the Spanish knew could never be paid. . militant Catholicism. And so it was that as the king entered his royal dotage, Philip grew fearful of going to hell. In 1627 the ruinous expenses of Spain's involvement in the Thirty Years War forced the government to declare itself bankrupt; the war effort continued, however, and the Mantuan campaign (1628-1631) led to an open conflict with France, which became intensified in 1635. Toward the end of the 1620s, the Spanish army had lost its dominance. Philip is best known for the men who surrounded him. About King Philip IV of Spain Philip Prospero, Prince of Asturias (Felipe Próspero José Francisco Domingo Ignacio Antonio Buenaventura Diego Miguel Luis Alfonso Isidro Ramón Víctor; 28 November 1657 – 1 November 1661) was the first son of Philip IV of Spain … Under Philip's reign, Diego Velázquez (1599–1660), a painter in the court, played a significant role in an important public-relations campaign. Elliott, J. H. The Count-Duke of Olivares: The Statesman in an Age of Decline. . Philip III had the misfortune to be the son of Philip II…, Philip II (1527-1598) was king of Spain from 1556 to 1598. Since the beginning of the 16th century, the Spanish infantry had been regarded as the best in Europe; its defeat symbolized the downfall of Spain as a military power. His brilliant and sumptuous court was the most celebrated in Europe, and Burgundi…, Philip of the Blessed Trinity (Esprit Julien), https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/philip-iv-spain-1605-1665, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/philip-iv-0. NOT ON VIEW. Philip then took charge of the ongoing war and decided to start anew, which resulted in the successful capture of Catalonia in 1651. Restored to the Altamira family by a decree of King Louis XVIII of France issue… The futile war with the Dutch, which Philip had led, came to an end in 1648, and the 'Treaty of Münster' was signed. The surgeons scored the severity of the Habsburg jaw in the portraits analyzed and found that Charles II’s father, Philip IV of Spain, had the most prominent example of the enlarged jaw. 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